Ereignis: 0, (Max.: 500+)

[...]communicates with
integrates with

communication (of secret) --?--> adaptation, propagation

saber =/= sword

the flow of matter-movement
conveying singularities and traints of expression

assemblage --differentiates--> phyla (major taxonomic class) ~= flow ==> division into many different phylas + introducing selective discontinuities

technological vitalism

*refract differentiates*, retains, selects, draws together, causes to converge, invents

region of vague and material essences --> essences that are vagabond yet rigorous ==> situate fuzzy aggregates =/= fixed distinct and formed essences

corporeality = formed and perceived thinghood
inseparable from processes of transformation
inseparable from expressive qualities

vague = intermediary --> autonomous, stretching itself between things and thoughts --establish--> new relations (--> this is what Manning has adopted from Deleuze and Guattari)

variable intense affects

topological =/= geometrical

hylomorphic model =/= active and affective... (matter-flow can only be followed)
hylomorphic: imposing a form upon matter =/= materiality possessing a nomos : material traits of expression constituting affects (for example surrendering to the wood, then following where it leads by connecting operations to a materiality...)
-the critique of the hylomorphic schema is based on the existence between form and matter, of a zone of medium and intermediary dimension, of energetic... [and what about digital technology?]--> we need more artisan (follows the matter) =/= artist (invents/breaks the matter)
*artisan* --> one who is determined in such a way as to follow a flow of matter, of *machinic phylum* (@OSP, for example metallurgist = one who works inside the mold, the consciousness of thought of the matter-flow + metal the correlate of this consciousness)
[follow a flow of matter = to itinerate, to ambulate]
artisan =/= farmer
artisan =/= animal raiser
[*]artisan: take up craft activity + follow the matter-flow as pure productivity

continous development of form, chromaticism --> a form proper to matter [-->? not in middle east: metaphysics --> metallurgist =/= metamorphosist poet --> chaotic =/= harmonic, nomadic]

not everything is metal, but metal is everywhere (--> what would X-Men say about this)

--D+G--> *thought is born more from metal than from stone*(!!)
metallurgy is minor science, vague science, phenomenology of matter

nature material computation dell science knowledge representation microscope zoom [source:] metal is neither a thing not an organism, but a *body without organs*
(on the symbolic value of metal and its correspondence with an organic soul but on the immanent power of corporeality)

smiths (Sina, OSP?)
their space is neither the striated space of the sedentary nor the smooth space of the nomad (--> my room and computer desktop) --> #tent, in the manner of a cave or a hole
--> *they are cave dwellers not by nature by by artistry and need*
internal itinerancy, their vague essences ==> their relation to others
--> *smith* [follows the flow of matter ==> (surplus value:) ‘resist the State’, Tamar Yaen Pierre Sina Goda]
=/= *migrant* [existence depends upon and constrained by the logic of the State (with its boundaries and borders) ==> (surplus value:) ‘residual gold in the ruins’, Hoda Sana Rui Flavio Quinsy Elen]
=/= *nomad* [occupies and inhabits smooth space beyond or bellow the State ==> (surplus value:) ‘alternative’, Deborah Xiri Leo Isabel Aela Agnes]
=/= *pastoral transhuman* [rotates through a circuit ==> (surplus value:) ‘erotic inclusivity']

vital forms of nonorganic life

your strength and your nothingness

transpierce =/= scaling
excavate =/= striating

...vagabond sign of itinerancy سيارى

from hole to hole
a line of variation

***the hybrid metallurgist, a weapon- and toolmaker, communicates with the sedentaries and with the nomads at the same time***

--connected-to--> nomad space
--conjugates-with--> sedentary space

(we have both:)
*war machine*:
*state apparatus*:
capture phylum
play the lines of flight
into code
into form

war machine collides with States and cities (forces of striation) ==> war

Deleuze and Guattari ask:
-how will the State appropriate the war machine?
(appropriate: subordinates it to its political aims)

from encasement قفسه --to--> (forms of) appropriation تصاحب

Genghis Khan and his followers were able to hold out for a long time by partially integrating themselves into the conquered empires, while at the same time maintaining a smooth space on the steppes to which the imperial centers were subordinated

Timur who constructed a fantastic war machine turned back against the nomads, but who, by that very fact, was obliged to erect a State apparatus all the heavier and more unproductive since it existed only as the empty form of appropriation of that machine

the peace of terror or survival
-the postfascist figure that takes peace as its object directly
-we have seen war machine assign its objective a peace still more terrifying than fascist death
*the unspecified enemy* we have seen it put its counterguerrilla elements into place

two poles of war machine:
1. it takes war for its object and forms a line of destruction prolongable to the limits of the universe
2. when it, with infinitely lower qualities, has as its object not war but the drawing of a *creative line of flight* (the composition of a smooth space and of the movement of people in that space)

an ideological, scientific, or artistic movement can be a potential war machine, to the precise extent to which it draws, in relation to aphylum, a plane of consistency, a creative line of flight, a smooth space of displacement



Daston history of reason
Daston asking: how reason became rationality?

rationality (~= universal calculus of) =/= reasoning

(a more) ancient ideal --> reasoning [with recourse to the faculty of judgement]
modern ideal --> (cold war) rationality: a finite well-defined set of rules that can be applied unambiguously in specified settings without recourse to the faculty of judgement

cold war: crystalline + generality + conclusivess could cope with a world on the brink
--> algorithmic rules as the core of rationality
--> sacrifice of [precious to philosophers] ‘insight’ and ‘understanding’ ascpects of reason
--> automatic: you don't need to understand them to execute them

*the posiblity of a mechanical mind*

Turing's [*]programming: constructing instruction tables

(1794 early French revolution) universal school for future French citizen with arithmetic [3 + 4 = 7] at its core --teach-> “exactitude of the mind” --> children are going to learn:
the meaning of self evidence [of arithmetic propositions]
the meaning of justified belief
formation of ideas
}--foundation--> quanitative science of a human realm

first reliable calculator --> 1850

rationality عقلانيت
history of ever more sophisticated mechanical computers
how rules themselves became increasingly identified with algorithms
how algorithms became increasingly identified with mindlessness

Kant --> science as mechanical skill that can be mastered by diligence and determinate rules
tacit knowledge: a manul labor [styles of knowing] that cannot be captured by algorithms

---> go to Encyclopedie (Diderot)...

deskilling calculation ==> economic rationality (economic rationalization): you take the task, decompose it into simplest possible steps, you divide the labor, you hire the least skilled and cheapest labor possible ==Babbage==> increase the efficiency and the costs

game theory
rational choice theory

(memory + understanding + judgement + imagination)
*judgement (Daston) and imagination (Sina) are integral to the exercise of reason*

reason in rationality: algorithmic rule governed =/=
passions اشتياق تعصب
fantasy وسواس
sloppy thinking درهم وبرهم
ignorance بى خبرى
superstition خرافه
self-deception خود فريبى

the human factor
there is something about human that has always been in odds with reason

Nozick (~ Terminator) --> the rules of procedures that constitute rationality would be valid, would be efficacious, but algorithmic. executed by machine, but opaque to human understanding
~ Wittgenstein --> to follow a rule: a practice taught by example =/= precept
}--> *to understand rules in an algorithmic sense* =/= model, maxim, tacit knowledge

Daston --> there is no simple way, in which historical context determines the form and content of the thinkable. but (as in the case of algorithmic rules and cold war rationality) historical circumstances do light up some parts of the intellectual landscape and darken others

our current understanding of what it means to be rational owes a great deal to the power of place and time
for Kant: judgement = highest faculties =/= for modern (us) judgement is problematic


[the horror of the contemporary German art:] to deliberate: کنکاش سنجیده و عمدی =/= Janina
(art of [ironic] deliberation =/= chaotic venture, Sina's lecture-performances)
deliberation: thinking then doing it =/= doing then thinking about what you have done (~= communication, intimacy)


metaphysics of natural law

Daston's rigor: trying to understand why is it so persistant (almost irresistible) that we **extract social and moral norms from nature** (rather than jumping up saying that it is a doomed idea)
[--> got to fable; ikhvano safa court of animals; panchatantra Kelile Demne]
to merge natural and social orders together
to make nature meaningful
to invoke nature to buttress human values of: true, good, beautiful

devil = collective human imagination of chaos

formless and lawless
land of no promises
past is no guide to the future
at the mercy of chance

the axiom of modern thought: society =/= nature [of which trespassings are rife]

to extract some sort of politics from:
physics of liver
evolutionary theory
organic specialization [--Aristotle--> slavery]

1. how conceptions of natural order sustains specific norms & the model of any kind of norm <-- historical + empirical
2. appeal to nature capture something profound about values in general regardless of their specific context <-- philosophical

(the human) impulse to *make nature meaningful* --> psychological + epistemological + ethical necessity

(specific) [*]nature: the ontological identity card : that which makes a particular thing what it is (what makes skwerl a skwerl)
the idea of ***fixed natural kind ==inspire==> the ideal of justice***
--> the idea of organic specialization [organ: ‘tool’ in greek; for Aristotle: “injustice = violation of specialization” (of citizen's tools or honors) <-- an order of nature]

rose wanna be skwerl ---> go to bestiary
“good consist in each being striving to be the best of its kind not the best of all”

[*]nature: the will of God (~ edict of God) --Augustine--> “sodomy = crime against nature (~ against God: the author of nature)” [--> unnatural =/= sacrilege توهين به مقدسات]
a Roman custom (and a Roman intuition): when you are in a place you try to adapt to the local ways of doing things <-- (with Augustine) we are preserved in a proverb [#integration] --grant--> nature with supreme authority as God's proxy

seeking norms in nature --Daston-->
is this (examples) why we should stop it (at best nature authority is borrowed whether overtly from God or covertly from social conventions ==> it is redundent and we don't need it)
it is a dangerous weapon in the arsenal of the most repressive and aggressive elements of society

content of norms =/= [*]normativity: a justificatoin that gives any and all norms their force : the quality of telling us what should be (=/= describing how things actually are)

“the starry heavens above ~/= the moral law within” --> Kant's awe: the regularity (of both human law and natural law)
حيرت awe [<==evoke== the cosmic: all encompassing order & exquisitely designed ornament] =/= horror [<==evoke== the unnatural (ajayeb)]

**the recognition of an order** --Daston--> the key to all kinds of norms (--> awe = wonder + fear + respect)

(ancient greek cosmopolitan traverler ethnographer) Herodotus's fable of ‘custom is king of all’ <-- داریوش perian king Darius's anthropological experiment: Greeks won't eat their father's dead body, they burn it =/= Indians won't burn their father's dead body, they eat it

chaos: nature without order
anarchy: society without order
}--> past is no guide to present and future : *there are no regularities (of human promises or natural cycles) to support either justice or knowledge*

why duplicate the moral order with an analogical natural order?
why turn to nature for your raw materials (to construct moral order for themselves)?
--> ...

are we now in the position to reclaim norms from nature?
--> yes <== nature exemplifies so many different kinds of order:
order of the stars and plant =/= order of weather
order of specific natures =/= order of universal natural laws
order of local ecologies =/= order of cosmological unities of gravitation

which nature? --> any order of nature can be countered with examples of another order equally natural }--Daston--> [*]nature: repository (or wunderkammer) of all imaginable orders****

terror + randomness --> most effective weapon of dictators (you never know when it strikes again)
-horror of Kafka's bureaucracy: negation of regularity, destruction of order, institutionalized anarchy
-one of the most dehumanizing experiences: being completely subject to the will of another (~ slavery) [--> this is the most pleasurable experience in sex and sado masochism]

nature never insults (its inhumanity)
nature provides the raw material for meaning <-- *because we are embodied organisms we must incarnate our orders* (~ we must find a way to display them to ourselves)
animals can feel terror, but only humans can feel horror: the emotion that registers a deep disruption of an order (no matter what kind, a two-headed baby [natural monster] or a mother who kills her two babies [moral monster])


itchy eyes


16th and 17th centuries
times of extraordinary religious, economic, and intellectual upheaval (Europe was deluged by novelties of all kinds: birds of paradise, armadillos, anomalies: solar eclipse, comet, narwhal tusk, etc.)
(Daston >) Bacon [standing on an extremely unstable scientific ground] used monsters and marvels (as a sort of intellectual hygiene) to jolt people out of their assumptions about the natural world
=/= Aristotelian natural philosophy
--> anomaly took center stage of scientific explanations ~= art's investment in the exceptional
==> curiosity becomes a virtue =/= vice
nature is allowed to joke
nature has the freedom to experiment =/= God
--> ended by:
18th century's *division of labor*
19th century's *institution of science*

(two-headed cat's) deformations --> terrifying + electrifying
[*]bestiary = Telegram media from God:
sign of end
sign of fecundity, creativity, variety of nature


“everyone was trafficking in marvels in the 17th century”

... --> premodern sci --> age of wonder --> modern science --> ...

cabinets of curiosity
(Daston's) chambers of wonders
to overwhelm you
to impress the ambassador

for Aristotle, philosophy starts with wonder, but you make it disappear as soon as possible (“wonder = sign of ignorance” of the unlettered and illiterate)[...]