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[...] indeed heard a witch)--Bubandt--> witchcraft: a condition of doubt (=/= a system of belief)
----> Morris questions: doubt =/=? belief

Morris asks --> doubt:
whether illness is caused by witchcraft?
whether one's neighbor is a witch?
*whether one is oneself a witch?*

in Buli (=/= The Magicians TV series, Harry Potter film version of magic):
witchcraft does not explain the world
witchcraft is not an alternative mode of reasoning
witchcraft does not permit anyone to control the forces (that assault and wound human being)
witchcraft provides neither certitude nor escape from the anxieties that death bears for the living

(the interiority of the other is unknown and unknowable ==>)
[*]witchcraft ==provides==>
an idiom in which the world's very immunity to explanation is affirmed (often with violent and terrifying consequence)
figures and narrative forms in which to address (also reproduce) the opacity and ambivalence of sociality

the other (like the empty seashell) is unknowable, though we must engage others and seek recognition from them to escape solitude and death [...] in forms of giving and reciprocation that demand generosity but that are also likely to provoke avarice --emerge--> witchcraft: a relentless question about appearances and the problem of knowing what they disclose

doubling of genitalia and mouth in Buli dream imagery

(marriage: to manage witchcraft)
tradition “establishes the ideal format for conviviality” ==ensuring==> sexuality and consumption are made the basis of sociality =/= witchcraft (as a perversion of marriage)

in Buli (against mistranslation or misrecognition of the foreign modern):
Christian missionization (19th and early 20th century, and again in the 1930s)
modernist developmentalism and statism under Suharto
technologization associated with natural resource-based capitalism
}--scenario--> effort to become modern ==> enter an order of truth and knowledge (=/= dissimulation and doubt)

Eocene mammalian selves self minor celestial impact world now time species storytelling [source: Esther van Hulsen] valorization of reciprocity (in Halmahera)

Morris asks: is not the coimbrication of doubt/belief precisely what the discourses of the Enlightenment science, namely knowledge through revelation of what is, promised to replace?

(Bubandt's assumptions in Kant/Morris terms:)
doubt <== anxiety, fear, suspicion, rage (--> affective dimension)
doubt <== an incapacity to transcend the aporia that defines the relation between the empirical and the transcendental (--> epistemological dimension)

“I have never seen a cannibal witch” --> anthropology's epistemological conundrum (an a priori postulate) --Kant--> an irreducible impasse between the empirical and the transcendental, of the incapacity of sensory experience (intuition) to provide the basis of absolute knowledge (=/= merely general knowledge)

Foucault --> intuition cannot ground knowledge of the absolute ~=> knowledge of individual human beings and their empirical histories cannot provide knowledge of “the human”

Evans-Pritchard --> witchcraft satisfies the demands for an explanation of the singular event: this death, of this individual, in this moment (not death in general)
~-> for Bubandt, witchcraft: reproduction and valorization of this aporia (between the transcendental and the empirical)

James Siegel naming the witch (not only a political history but an investigation into the entire history of anthropological discourse on witchcraft and sorcery)
-he links the crisis of recognition brought on by the collapse of an authoritarian state that *had appropriated for itself the function of recognition*, to the rise of witchcraft accusations, to efforts to name a witch --> witches and not witchcraft were seen to proliferate after the fall of Suharto
how the labor to designate the source of a menace that exceeds the empirical and that fails to explain the singular is inevitably failed
the misrecognizing belief that eliminating witches could eliminate witchcraft

discern death drive in the very place that there is an effort to escape death

{ radical empiricism = close reading }==> attentive listening


(two competing conceptions and aspirations,) two paradigms of communication:
an ideal public sphere that recognizes the task of mediation but also requires its effacement
to bypass mediation through apparently immediate forms of speech that range from visual slogans to messianic utterances that can be heard even by the dead (--> frustrated by deferral)

Morris: the social scene is technologically heterogeneous ==> epochal and ontological schemata of mediatic displacement must thus be rethought

structure: an eruption of the mediaticity of the medium onto the horizon of reflexive consciousness (Kittler)

(in still decolonizing nations) the function of mediation has implicitly emerged as an agonistic exchange about the very possibility of exchange (not of deliberation) --> possibility of political representationalism

..stranded in its imaginary between the twin phantasms of the mining town in postapartheid South Africa

aspiring to a radical openness and threatened by it...
limits and the contradictions of democratic consciousness

environment as a monstrous hybrid of statistical hysteria and narrative compulsion as well as real violence (that takes its shape under conditions of largely racialized economic inequality)

[i have been working and listening to that which] call our attention to ***other spaces, identities, and structures of obligation*** (=/= defensive strategies)

cell phones
technological mediums of absent voices
lighting up, buzzing, or ringing
ciphers of a profane immanence
fetishes in which are concealed the histories of mining and labor elsewhere
promise contact with elsewhere + obstacles to the desire for full presence and the performative power of words ==> frustrated desire

a public whose membership cannot be known in advance--even when exclusionary limits are constitutive of its domain --> [*]public sphere: social formations enabled by technomedia phenomena (=/= spaces of rational deliberation and consensus making--as in liberal political theory, public sphere characterized by deliberative processes)
*scenes of overhearing* --> public speaking makes that overhearing its goal

“migrant pirates of deindustrialization” (speak only to threaten) --> liberal opposition between language and violence ~~--> the rhetorical grace appropriate to leadership (inauguration speech of Obama, his charisma emanated from his identification with a righteous struggle --> *his being more than himself* [<-- young artist selflessness syndrome in aspiration with the right politcal cause])
zamazamas’ illiteracy, not eligible for a public sphere that depends on literacy. for without literacy, they cannot submit to the law. *defined in its essence by legality* (sustained by a desired opposition between language and violence)

a signature (sign your own name): a form of writing recognizable across all (mainly romanized) languages and is the ideal condition of possibility of recognition from within its constitutional order

mimic the address of someone wit charisma (~= authority)

(Morris on) mediaticity of speech (and not merely of media technologies)

Morris reading of a scene (of quotidian exchange) in HIV/AIDS NGO office: a metonym and a metaphor for a kind of South African public sphere that aspires to inclusiveness but is terrorized by its incapacity to know what that opens it up to
arms itself against potentially aggressive others
narratives of violence work *to reinforce the sense of necessity* (for a general securitization)
work in the mode of a **negative meritocracy** (= those who would violate the rights of others are to be excluded, but no others --but--> how to know in advance who has perpetrated or intends to perpetrate such a violation?) the shadow of communicational technology's fashion industry
...bountiful banality of the technologies and artifacts of mass reproducibility

[...] --> lithography --(superseded by)--> photography --(gives way to)--> cinema --(transformed by)--> sound technology --(displaced by)--> integrated and multiplatform digital media --> [...]